2014, Vol. 25. #3-4


BIOGEOCENOLOGY, GEOBOTANY AND PHYTOCENOLOGY/
БІОГЕОЦЕНОЛОГІЯ, ГЕОБОТАНІКА ТА ФІТОЦЕНОЛОГІЯ


Mosula M. Z., Маyorova О. Yu., Hrytsak L. R., Mel’nyk V. М., Drobyk N. М., Kunakh V. A. Ecological and genetic analysis of Gentiana lutea L. populations from Ukrainian Carpatians

Мосула М. З., Майорова О. Ю., Грицак Л. Р., Мельник В. М., Дробик Н. М., Кунах В. А. Еколого-генетичний аналіз популяцій Gentiana lutea L. в Українських Карпатах

               

DOI: 10.15421/031415

Abstract (Show preview in english)


Analysis of five natural (Lemska, Gutyn Tomnatyk, Sheshul-Pavlyk, Krachunyeska, Troyaska-Tataruka) and one man-made (Pozhyzhevska) populations of G. lutea of the Ukrainian Carpathians based on the parameters of genetic diversity (polimorphy, heterozygosis, the division of the total genetic variation for intra- and interpopulation) and ecological characteristics (density, age structure, the ability to self-sustaining) as well.

Total (Dt) and effective (De) population density and number of indices: regeneration (RI), substitution (SI), aging (AI), age (Δ) and efficiency (ω) were determined. Vitality analysis of populations was performed by the method of Yu. A. Zlobin, while the type of strategy determined by Y. V. Tsaryk approach. Character of self-sustaining was determined by the ratio between the number of individuals of generative and vegetative origin. Analysis of genetic diversity of populations was performed by labeling inter-satellite sequences (ISSR-PCR) and arbitrary DNA ones (RAPD-PCR). Comprehensive analysis of the population states by their ecological and genetic parameters were performed similarly to the 5-point system of N. M. Beltyukova (2010). For the first time an integrated ecological and genetic approach to assessing the current state of the six populations of G. lutea of Ukrainian Carpathians was used. The research results can be used for stabilizing the number of violations and restoring the endangered natural populations.

It was established that the indices of genetic polymorphism were similar for different investigated populations. It was found significant genetic divergence, which is due to their geographic isolation and differences in growth conditions. By the results of complex ecological and genetic analysis of G. lutea populations were classified into three groups: stable, relatively stable, unstable. The stability of populations (Lemska, Sheshul-Pavlyk), to our mind, is defined as their environmental and genetic characteristics and location in the conservation area. All this together provides the ability of populations to survive and adapt to changing environmental conditions.

As relatively stable was classified population from Gutyn Tomnatyk mount, which, despite the small number of individuals showed high levels of genetic polymorphism. This conservation of the genetic diversity by scanty isolated populations indicates the fact that G. lutea species so far has genetic resources that are capable of restoring the population in case of creation the favorable conditions. Troyaska-Tataruka and Krachunyeska populations was classified as unstable, which is obviously due to positioning of these localities in conditions of heavy anthropogenic pressure and the inability of their individuals to compete with tall shrubs in phytocenoses. The division of localities into separate loci may alter the overall genetic structure of the population; deteriorating of growth conditions may lead to disruption of population structures and, as s result, reduce their stability.

Man-made population on Pozhyzhevska by the results of ecological and genetic analysis was stable. The ability of this population to withstand external influences, to compete with other types of groups and explore new territory was determined. Stability of agropopulation from Pozhyzhevska is evidence that artificial plantations of G. lutea in the highlands of Ukrainian Carpathians can serve as a way to preserve the gene pool of this species.

Key words: Gentiana lutea L., ecological characteristics of populations, parameters of genetic diversity, differentiation of populations, population status, population strategies
 

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Chykailo Y. I., Voloshin I. M. Ecological-geographical analysis of vegetation of near-roads zones of transport corridor Lviv–Krakovets

Чикайло Ю. І., Волошин І. М. Еколого-геохімічний аналіз рослинності приавто-магістральних смуг транспортного єврокоридора Львів–Краковець

DOI: 10.15421/031416

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In the article, the eco-geochemical analysis of flora on roadside areas of highway M-10 Lviv-Krakovets is made. In the foliage of following tree species Common hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.), English oak (Quercus robur L.), Common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), using atomic-absorption methods, there were revealed such heavy metals as Pb, Zn, Co, Cu, Ni, Mo, Cr, Mn, V, Ba, Sr, Zr, Fe, Ti, Sn. The analysis of literary sources by Voloshyn, Sobechko, Bessonova and ours investigations reveals that in different areas the content of heavy metals (HM) in the foliage of tree species differs significantly.

In addition, it has been investigated the content of chemicals in the foliage of roadside trees along highway Lviv-Krakovets and compared with world clarke indices. Content of Pb, Zn, Mn, V in the foliage of roadside trees is lower than showing of world clarkes, what is caused by characteristics of parent rocks. Elements that exceed world clarkes are Ba, Cu, Ni, Mo, Sr, Ti, Zr and Cr, their content in foliage of tree species varies from 1,2 to 16,7 mg/kg of dry weight.

In the article, the accumulation coefficients are calculated. These coefficients confirm accumulation of car pollutants in roadsides and adjoining areas.

There is made an investigation of general biological and discrete (by root surface and foliage surface) absorption of 15 chemical elements and as a result several species, which have the highest accumulation coefficients, are set apart. In the foliage of roadside tree species, the general biological absorption coefficients (GBAC) of technogenic (road) pollutants are counted. It has been determined that the maximum GBAC values immanent to Ni and Ва are 10,1 and 3,5 correspondingly (Common hornbeam), Cu – 7,7, Mn – 2,7 and Мо – 1,4 (English oak) and Sr – 1,4 (Common ash). According to the content and distribution of heavy metals in the foliage of roadside trees, it was build the descending rows according to intensity of HM absorption by different tree species. It has been counted the intensity with what tree species absorb road pollutants, Pb absorbs Common ash, Scots pine, Zn, Co, Cr, Sr – Common ash; Ni, Ba – Common hornbeam; Cu, Mo, Mn, V, Zr – English oak; Fe, Ti – Norway spruce. It has been counted the discrete (areal and root) absorption of HM by tree species. It is known from literary sources that foliage does not accumulate Pb by areal way, that is why the value of this HM is considered as constants and according to certain methodological ways is counted areal and root absorption.

The discrete biological absorption coefficients (DBAC) of technogenic (road) pollutants by different tree species in roadsides are different. Deciduous tree species in contrast to pinophyta, by areal way accumulate Mо – 0,33 (Common hornbeam) – 0,95 (English oak), partially V – 0,17 (English oak), Zn – 0,14 (Norway spruce). DBAC Со in foliage of tree species varies from 0,33 (English oak) to 0,73 (Common beech), Cu – 0,52 (Scots pine) – 0,99 (English oak, Common hornbeam), Ni – 0,23 (Scots pine) – 0,99 (Common hornbeam, English oak, Common beech, Norway spruce), Mn – 0,61 (Common ash) – 0,98 (English oak, Norway spruce), Ва – 0,43 (Common hornbeam) – 0,92 (English oak, Norway spruce), Sr – 0,64 (Common hornbeam) – 0,94 (English oak, Norway spruce). The most actively foliage absorbs Cu, Ni, Mn, Со (in 100 % of samples); partially – Ba, Sr (80 %); Mo (40 %); V і Zn (20 і 10 %).

It has been proposed several tree species for forest plantation, which have the highest biological absorption. The highest intensity of general biological absorption of HM have English oak, Common hornbeam, Common ash, Common beech, Norway spruce, which absorbs Ni, Cu, Ba, Mn, Sr, Mo, Co, Fe, and this considerably reduce pollution in roadsides and adjoining areas

Key words: eurocorridor, near-highway zones, geochemical analysis, arboreal breeds
 

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Dzjuba O. I., Yatsenko M. V. Ecological and physiological as well as biochemical properties of representatives of the Genus sedum L.

Дзюба О. І., Яценко М. В. Еколого-фізіологічні та біохімічні властивості представників роду Sedum L.

DOI: 10.15421/031417

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The article deals with the history of the study and the current state of research of physiological and biochemical properties of the plant genus Sedum that are useful for human and has been used in folk medicine for many years. It was noticed that antioxidant properties of extracts from plants S. sarmentosum, S. sempervivoides, S. takesimense were caused by the presence of phenolic compounds. Methanol extract of plants S. takesimense exhibited strong scavenging activities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals as well as significant inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation and low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation induced by a metal ion Cu2+.

Various immunomodulatory activities of various fractions of plants extracts (S. dendroideum, S. kamtschaticum, S. sarmentosum, S. telephium) are observed. It was shown that the ethanol extract of S. sarmentosum and it’s fractions suppressed specific antibody and cellular responses to ovalbumin in mice. The methanol extract of plants S. sarmentosum reduced the levels of anti-inflammatory markers, such as volume of exudates, number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, suppressed nitric oxide synthesis in activated macrophages via suppressed induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Polysaccharides fractions from plants S. telephium inducing productions of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), increasing the intensity of phagocytosis in vitro and in vivo. Methanol extract from the whole part of S. kamtschaticum strongly inhibit PGE2 production from lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells, a mouse macrophage cell line via modulating activity in gene expression of the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The methanol extract of plants S. sarmentosum and the major kaempferol glycosides from S. dendroideum have antinociceptive activity.
It was noticed that anti-adipogenic activity of extracts from plants S. kamtschaticum were caused by inhibition of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression and it’s dependent target genes, such as genes encoding adipocyte protein 2 (аР2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), adiponectin and CD36.

Polysaccharides fractions from S. telephium cause inhibition of cell adhesion of human fibroblast (MRC5) to laminin and fibronectin via interfere with integrin-mediated cell behaviour and they contributed to the role of polysaccharides in cell-matrix interaction. The methanol extract of plants S. sarmentosum exhibited a significant inhibitory activity in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. The crude alkaloid fraction of S. sarmentosum caused a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation on murine hepatoma cell line BNL CL.2 and human hepatoma cell line HepG2 without necrosis or apoptosis. Alkaloids from plants S. sarmentosum may improve survival of hepatoma patients via the inhibition of excessive growth of tumor cells. Plant’s juices have antiviral activity (S. sarmentosum, S. spurium, S. stahlii). Crude ethanol extract S. praealtum have spermicidal activity of the in mice and a relevant inhibitory effect of aqueous extract on human spermatozoa motility as well as an anti-fertilizing activity in rats. Hepatoprotective triterpenes, e.g., δ-amyrone, 3-epi-δ-amyrin, δ-amyrin and sarmentolin were isolated from S. sarmentosum.

2- and 2,6-substituted piperidine alkaloids (e.g., norsedamine, allosedridine, sedamine, allosedamine) are observed in plants S. acre, which in the presence of data on the use of pyridine and piperidine derivatives for treating neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), points on the promising research in this area.

Taking into account that biologically active compounds are accumulated in the aboveground vegetative organs of plants of Sedum, the prospects of further study of the use of Sedum for the purposes of biotechnology and in the pharmaceutical industry becomes apparent. This work extends the existing views regarding the use of plants Sedum.

Key words: Sedum, activity, biologically active compounds
 

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Gavrikova V. S., Ignatyuk O. A. The dynamics of fluctuating asymmetry of Acer platanoides L. leaves in urbanized environment

Гаврикова В. С., Ігнатюк О. А. Динаміка флуктуючої асиметрії листків Acer platanoides L. урбанізованих територій  

DOI: 10.15421/031418

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The paper discusses the investigation of stability of developmental processes of vegetative organs of Acer platanoides L. trees from different habitats (derivative of natural stands and managed plantations). Developmental stability (instability) is appraised based on the value of the index of leaves fluctuating asymmetry. The various aspects of the dynamics of fluctuating asymmetry of Acer platanoides L. leaves are discussed from the perspective of its using with the purpose of bioindication of urbanized environmental state. The method of the detection of fluctuating asymmetry values of A. platanoides leaves using the five original morphological parameters that are well detected on recently collected leaves and can be successfully measured on the digital image is developed and suggested by authors. Modification of the method (namely, measuring by using the digital image) is admitted to avoid long-termed measuring the recently collected leaves which will wither quickly enough and change its shape and size. It is established, that there is no significant differences of asymmetry of individual leaves within the tree.

The series of experiments in the “Feofania” was investigated with the purpose of studying the patterns of the dynamics of fluctuating asymmetry during the season. The assays from the same nine trees were collected in May (directly after the leaf-forming), June, July. It is showed, that the fluctuating asymmetry values of A. platanoides leaves are not changed reliably (p=0,05) within the tree and the whole habitat during the season. Therefore, biomonitoring and bioindication using the fluctuating asymmetry of leaves can be conducted at the beginning and the end of the vegetative season.

The three years dynamics of fluctuating asymmetry values of A. platanoides leaves from eight habitats in Kyiv is investigated. During three years the value of fluctuating asymmetry is varied in the short interval – from 6 % to 8 %. It is founded, that the tendency of changing the fluctuating asymmetry values is different for various habitats. The fluctuating asymmetry value of A. platanoides leaves for four habitats (“Feofania”, “Lysa Gora”, “Goloseevskiy Park”, “Desnyanskiy Park”) of the eight investigated decreases during the 3-year period. The highest values are recorded for three habitats (“Pushcha-Vodytsia”, “Vossoedinenia Avenue”, “Siretskiy Grove”) in 2012. The tendency of the asymmetry increasing during the whole period of investigation is recorded in only one habitat (“Ivana Kudri Street”). The fluctuating asymmetry value in 2013 is lower than the value of this parameter in 2012 in seven of the eight habitats (except “Ivana Kudri Street”). The averaged annual fluctuating asymmetry values in all habitats of the megalopolis also suggest that there is a slight decrease of the asymmetry value in 2013 in comparison with previous years.

Discovered differences of the fluctuating asymmetry values of A. platanoides leaves in studied habitats in different years show the tendency, which does not give the clear picture. Apparently, it is connected with the certain constellation of existing natural and anthropogenic factors. To discovery its regularity the more prolonged and profound investigations should be conducted. Therefore, to get representative results of monitoring we recommend conducting the bioindication with using the fluctuating asymmetry values of A. platanoides leaves during several (minimum three) years running.

The comparison of the averaged (during three years) values of the fluctuating asymmetry of every habitat and the averaged value of the whole megalopolis shows normalized results. The habitats “Desnyanskiy Park” and “Vossoedinenia Avenue” demonstrate reliably higher fluctuating asymmetry. There is also the similar fluctuating asymmetry value of leaves from habitat “Ivana Kudri Street”. The averaged fluctuating asymmetry values of leaves from habitats “Siretskiy Grove” and “Goloseevskiy Park” are reliably lower than the averaged value of the megalopolis. Therefore, the highest values of the fluctuating asymmetry of A. platanoides leaves, which show the least stable developmental processes of plants, are founded on the territories, that have the maximum level of urbanization. These habitats are managed plantation. The others investigated habitats are natural stands. It is detected, that the fluctuating asymmetry value of A. platanoides leaves decreases when proportion of its dominance in the stands increases. It should be appreciated when choosing the control group of plants during the monitoring. The control group should be from the natural stand with the maximum dominance of the relevant species.

Key words: bioindication, developmental stability, dynamics of fluctuating asymmetry, Acer platanoides.
 

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FOREST BIOGEOCENOLOGY / ЛІСОВА БІОГЕОЦЕНОЛОГІЯ


Olijnyk M. P., Parpan V. I. The dynamics of systematic structure floral complexes on the old fields during secondary succession

Олійник М. П., Парпан В. І. Динаміка систематичної структури флорокомплексів на перелогах протягом вторинної сукцесії

DOI: 10.15421/031419

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The national plan of actions concerning the natural environmental protection in Ukraine in 2011–2015 presupposes the average reduce of the arable lands by 5–10 % with the help of withdrawal from the intense farming, preserving of the degradation and inefficient agriculture lands, with a purpose of the natural carcass elements extension (forests, meadows, pastures) and the rationalization of the agro-landscapes structure. It is known that the fitocenoses play a deciding role in the system of environmental preservation actions, its upgrade and improvement.

According to the data of the Department of State Land Cadastre of State Land Agency of Ukraine of 01.01.2013 277.2 thousands hectares of land were excluded from the category of arable land and transferred to the old field land class consisting 0,5 % of the general area of Ukraine that is transforming under the influence of natural and anthropogenic processes. These changes in the structure and dynamics of the main landscape parameters and the danger of losing a significant part of biodiversity determine the relevance of the investigating systematic structure of the old-field species-composition at different stages of secondary succession.

The research was made in 2010–2013 with the help of route and stationary methods on the calculation ground: 2×2 m for the grassy vegetation, 10×10 m for the tree and bush vegetation. The plots were chosen on different stages of the secondary succession, which most fully reflect the representatives of the flora complexes and enclose the whole spectrum of the main abiotic factors of its forming: I – old-fields, which were not processed for 1–3 years, II – old-fields, which were not processed for 4–7 years, III – old-fields, which were not processed for 8–13 years, IV – old-fields, which were not processed for 14–22 years. Taxonomic composition is given according to the field studies and basing on the collected herbarium material. Systematic spectrum (leading, middle and final) was defined using an average index of saturation (H) of higher rank taxa with lower rank taxa. To the middle part there belonged the amount of lower rank taxa equal to the average index of saturation of higher rank taxa ± 50 % of its value:

H ± 0.5 × H.

To compare the degree of species composition similarity there was used the Jaccard similarity coefficient (Kj). The similarity degree of floral complexes according to the systematic structure was defined using modified Bravais-Pearson coefficient of correlation (r).

Taxonomic composition of the old-field land floral complexes of Prydnistrovske Podillia showed that it numbered 413 species belonging to 238 genera and 64 families. The old field floral complexes of the studied territory are characterized by the dominance by the amount of species and genera of few families, the taxonomic spectrum of which comprises 264 species (63,9 %) and 150 genera (62,9 %). In the genera spectrum of floral complexes prevails monotype fraction – 204 genera (85,7 %) uniting 253 species (61,3 %). The role of absolute indices of the floristic abundance (amount of species, kinships and families) have a natural tendency to extension, which is a result of the change in soil and climatic as well as the cenotic conditions in the process of demutation of the flora cover in the old-fields.

The analysis of the floral wealth, systematic diversity and taxonomic composition indicate the dynamic process of flora-genesis at the old field lands and the largest similarity of floras of the 3rd and the 4th degrees of secondary succession as a result of stabilization of ecological conditions. The least similar are the floral complexes of the 1st and the 4th degrees of syngenesis.

Besides the general systematic structure of the flora complexes of the old-fields, the determination of the species abundance of the biotopic old-plough lands still remains urgent. Based on the principles of the heterogeneity and change of the vegetation depending on the dynamics indices of the environment, dimensionally (discretely), as well as timely (successively) on the territory of the research, we found out and described the species abundance of 10 biotypes. The analysis of biotopes species composition similarity shows that most of them are characterized by low degree similarity.

Our further researches will be connected with the peculiarities of the ecological succession at old field lands. The ecological analysis of floral complexes was based on the study of O. L. Belgard about ecomorphs.

Key words: secondary succession, taxonomic structure, leading families, species, fallows, biotop
 

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Goncharenko I. V., Holyk H. M. Kyiv park "Nivki" and "Teremki" forests and ecological analysis of their habitats

Гончаренко І. В., Голик Г. М. Екологічний аналіз місцезростань лісової рослинності парків «Нивки» та «Теремки» м. Києва

DOI: 10.15421/031420

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Cenotic diversity and leading ecological factors of its floristic differentiation were studied on an example of two areas – Kyiv parks "Nivki" and "Teremki". It is shown that in megalopolis the Galeobdoloni-Carpinetum impatientosum parviflorae subassociation is formed under anthropogenic pressure on the typical ecotope of near-Dnieper hornbeam oak forests on fresh gray-forest soils. The degree of anthropogenic transformation of cenofloras can be estimated by the number of species of Robinietea and Galio-Urticetea classes, as well as neophytes and cultivars. Phytoindication for hemeroby index may be also used in calculation.
We propose the modified index of biotic dispersion (normalized by alpha-diversity) for the estimation of ecophytocenotic range (beta-diversity) of releves series.

We found that alpha-diversity initially increases (due to the invasion of antropophytes) at low level of antropogenic pressure, then it decreases (due to the loss of aboriginal species) secondarily with increasing of human impact. Also we found that beta-diversity (differential diversity) decreases, increasing homogeneity of plant cover, under the influence of anthropogenic factor.
Vegetation classification was completed by a new original method of cluster analysis, designated as DRSA («distance-ranked sorting assembling»). The classification quality is suggested to be validated on the "seriation" diagram, which is а distance matrix between objects with gradient filling. Dark diagonal blocks confirm clusters’ density (intracluster compactness), uncolored off-diagonal blocks are evidence in favor of clusters’ isolation (intercluster distinctness). In addition, distinction of clusters (syntaxa) in ordination area suggests their independence.
For phytoindication we propose to include only species with more than 10% constancy. Furthermore, for the description of syntaxonomic amplitude we suggest to use 25%-75% interquartile scope instead of mean and standard deviation. It is shown that comparative analysis of syntaxa for each ecofactor is convenient to carry out by using violin (bulb) plots.

A new approach to the phytoindication of syntaxa, designated as R-phytoindication, was proposed for our study. In this case, the ecofactor values, calculated for individual releves, are not taken into account, however, the composition of cenoflora with species constancies is used that helps us to minimize for phytoindication the influence of non-typical species.

We suggested a syntaxon’s amplitude to be described by more robust statistics: for the optimum of amplitude (central tendency) – by a median (instead of arithmetic mean), and for the range of tolerance – by an interquartile scope (instead of standard deviation). We assesses amplitudes of syntaxa by phytoindication method for moisture (Hd), acidity (Rc), soil nitrogen content (Nt), wetting variability (vHd), light regime (Lc), salt regime (Sl). We revealed no significant differences on these ecofactors among ecotopes of our syntaxa, that proved the variant syntaxonomic rank for all syntaxa.

We found that the core of species composition of our phytocenoses consists of plants with moderate requirements for moisture, soil nitrogen, light and salt regime. We prove that the leading factor of syntaxonomic differentiation is hidden anthropogenic, which is not subject to direct measurement. But we detect that hidden factor of "human pressure" was correlated with phytoindication parameters (variables) that can be measured "directly" by species composition of plant communities. The most correlated factors were ecofactors of soil nitrogen, wetting variability, light regime and hemeroby. The last one is the most indicative empirically for the assessment of "human impact". We establish that there is a concept of «hemeroby of phytocenosis» (tolerance to human impact), which can be calculated approximately as the mean or the median of hemeroby scores of individual species which are present in it.
Key words: : forest-park vegetation, Kyiv, syntaxonomy, Fagetalia, cluster analysis, DRSA, phytoindication, violin plots
 

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ZOOCENOSES AS A COMPONENT OF BIOGEOCENOSIS / ЗООЦЕНОЗ ЯК КОМПОНЕНТ БІОГЕОЦЕНОЗУ


Mustafayeva G. A. The study of oleander scale (Aspidiotus nerii Bche) and the way of diluting its entomophages in Azerbaijan

Мустафаева Г. А. Исследование олеандровой щитовки (Aspidiotus nerii Bche) и способ разведения ее энтомофагов в Азербайджане  

DOI: 10.15421/031421

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Scales (Hemiptera, Diaspididae) are the dangerous crop and park-ornamental plant pests. They reproduce very quickly and cause great harm to plants, sometimes even lead to their complete destruction. Scales suck juices from plants, cause premature drying, dying and falling off leaves, dry branches, deformation of leaves, fruits and shoots, reducing annual growth of plants. Therefore the fight with these pests is rather topical in the agriculture. In this connection in this work the analysis of bioecological peculiarities of oleander scale on the territory of Azerbaijan, and also the detection of species content of parasites and predators, which regulate their number is conducted.

We will mark that oleander scales in the wild there are the entomophages are vermin and predators that reduce their quantity. For realization of biological fight against people we studied the bioenvironmental features of wreckers, and also educed specific composition of vermin and predators that regulate their quantity. In a biological fight against these wreckers, one of basic questions is study of specific composition of these entomophages. The faunistic material on entomophages of this pest was collected from different biocenosis; the researched works were conducted in the laboratory and field conditions in Azerbaijan. The advanced and research studies that we conducted gave an opportunity to educe entomophages oleander scale that inflicts an enormous damage to the agricultural cultures and park-decorative plants. The method of breeding of effective types of entomophages is studied in laboratory terms.

Firstly the biology of oleander scale on Apsheron peninsula and in Guba Khachmazskii area was studied. The results of long-term studies showed that oleander scale, having distributed on Apsheron peninsula, on olive trees gives 3 generations. Only adult female animals and maggots of I and II age spend winter. Awakening of the scales on olives takes place in March-April. In II and III decade of April the male animals begin their flight. In Guba Khachmazskii area the biology of this scale, dwelling on oleander bush was studied. On this plant the scale gives 3 generations. Young female animals, and also maggots of I and II age winter.

As a result of the works conducted the following entomophages of oleander scale were detected: predator Rhyzobius lophanthae Blaisd, Chilocorus bipustulatus L., Chilocorus renupustulatus L; parasites: Aphytis chilensis Howаrd, Aspidiotiphagus citrinus Graw, Encarsia aurantii (Howard).

The habitat of Rhyzobius lophanthae is Australia. At the end of the last century of this predatory beetle left to California, from there left to Italy and in other Mediterranean countries. In 1947 by chance was left to Georgia (Abkhazia). Maybe these useful predators in Azerbaijan were from Georgia.

For diluting the entomophages from the local indigenous fauna the potato tubers were used, on which firstly the oleander scales, and then road-beetles Rhyzobius lophanthae, Chilocorus bipustulatus reproduced themselves. In the laboratory conditions the methods of diluting of these Coccinellidae was developed.

Thus, firstly the way of diluting parasites of oleander scale was studied and developed – Aphytis chilensis Howard, Aspidiotiphagus citrinus Graw и Encarsia antantii (Howard).

It was detected that predatory entomophage-chilocor in the natural conditions is ineffective, as their maggots and chrysalises are affected by other local parasites. In the laboratory conditions this beetle produce itself very well on the potato tubers, infected by oleander scale.

However, we should note that among entomophage parasites Aphytis chilensis plays the huge role in destruction of scales. In dependence on the weather conditions this macrophage in the nature can give 3–4 generations. Also it was proved that beetle Rhyzobius lophanthae in the biological fight can be applied against all round scales. This predator is effective entomophage of oleander, olive scale, black pine-leaf scale, white peach scale, European fruit scale and cactus scale. In connection with this, Rhyzobius lophanthae can be applied in the biological fight against oleander scale and presently is irreplaceable and perspective entomophage

Key words: scale, generation, entomophages, predators, parasites, biological control, breeding
 

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Grabovska S. L., Kolodochka L. О. Mites of the family Phytoseiidae (Parasitiformes, Mesostigmata) at the plants in Brovary town

Грабовська С. Л., Колодочка Л. О. Кліщі родини Phytoseiidae (Parasitiformes, Mesostigmata) на рослинах м. Бровари

DOI: 10.15421/031422

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This article deals with the results of study of species content and basic peculiarities of beaked mites-Phytoseiidae in plant associations of one of the regional centers of Ukraine.

The species composition and distribution of mites-Phytoseiidae (Parasitiformes, Phytoseiidae) in plantations of Brovary town of Kyiv region were determined. Fourteen species of 8 genera of phytoseiid mites were found. Index of their existing and relative biotope connection of each registered species to vegetation types and plant species were computed.

The study was conducted according to the results of material treatment on the territory of the mentioned city from 25 species of plants (16 species of hardy-shrub and 9 of herbaceous vegetations). The studies of distribution of plant-living mites-Phytoseiidae were conducted separately for hardy-shrub and herbaceous plants).
The collection of faunistic material was executed during the vegetation of periods of 2011 and 2013. Within the city the collection of the material was conducted with hardy-shrub plants and herbaceous type of vegetation along the streets, in parks and squares of Brovary city of Kyiv region, district center, one of the satellite-cities of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.

The study of species complexes characteristics of mites was conducted with usage of data calculated on the basis of frequency index (Is), degree of relative habitat confinedness (F) (Pesenko, 1982) and domination index Paliy-Kovnatski (Di) (Shitikov, 2003). Only on one species of plant (F=1) 6 species of mites-Phytoseiidae were found – T.сotoneastri on blue spruce, T. laurae – on common spruce, T. aceri – on ash-leaved maple, P. incognitus – on dog-rose, P. soleiger – on mulberry-tree, A. caudiglans – on sea-buckthorn. These species can be related to stenoecic. The mentioned species are stenotopic only in relation to the sample of plants from the plant associations of Brovary, as in other regions these species of mites can populate the other species of plants.

The rest 8 species, being registered on two or more types of plants, are related to euryoecic. Among them there is a group of 6 species with “positive tendencies to population of plants”, owning the indicators of habitat confinedness 0 < F < 1: A. andersoni (0,92–0,96), A. rademacheri (0,85–0,96), N. herbarius (0,92–0,96), T. tiliarum (0,66–0,77), A. pirianykae (0,73–0,99), A. clavata (0,82–0,98). The rest species, E. finlandicus и K. aberrans, have the expanded range of indicators in relation to habitat confinedness (-0,71< F < 0,55 и -0,16 < F < 0,88), that specifies on their ability to populate the big quality of species.

E. finlandicus has the negative indicator of relative habitat confinedness in relation to the plants of herbaceous morphotype that serves confirmation of the ecological peculiarity of the species detected earlier.

The data of relative habitat confinedness of mites to certain species of plants shows availability of stenoecic (T.сotoneastri, T. laurae, T. aceri, P. incognitus, P. soleiger, A. caudiglans) and euryoecic species (A. andersoni, A. rademacheri, N. herbarius, E. finlandicus, K. aberrans, T. tiliarum, A. pirianykae, A. clavata).

Key words: predatory mites, Phytoseiidae, Brovary, Ukraine
 

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ECOLOGICAL SOIL SCIENCE / ЕКОЛОГІЧНЕ ҐРУНТОЗНАВСТВО


Tagunova Ye. O. Peculiarities of manganese and lead distribution in soils of Samara Dniprovska river valley ecosystems

Є. О. Тагунова. Особливості розподілу марганцю та свинцю в біогеоценозах долини р. Самари Дніпровської

DOI: 10.15421/031423

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Microelemental characteristics of the edaphotopes of A. L. Belgard Prysamarsky International Biospheric Station (Dnieper Prisamaria region, Ukraine) by example of forb-fescue-stipa steppe and lime-ash oakery of the central floodplain are presented. The content and patterns of distribution of Manganese and Lead in soil profiles were researched.

Key words: soil, trace element, Manganese, Lead, distribution
 

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MATHEMATICAL MODELING IN ECOLOGY / МАТЕМАТИЧНЕ МОДЕЛЮВАННЯ В ЕКОЛОГІЇ


Poltoratskaya V. N. Mathematical model to assess the actual environmental risk from the point source emissions

Полторацкая В. Н. Математическая модель оценки фактического экологического риска для одиночного точечного источника  

DOI: 10.15421/031424

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A mathematical model for point source emissions, which allows to determine the ecological risk, improve the ecological situation in the region with the ability to manage risk.

Environmental risk is defined as the probability of exceeding a multidimensional integral field concentrations of pollutants its Maximum Admissible Concentration (with a small number of measurements) or frequency exceeding the given measured concentrations of pollutants its Maximum Admissible Concentration (with a large number of measurements). Components of air pollution regions, cities, enterprises are individual emission sources, so primarily developing assessment and environmental risk analysis should be performed for individual sources and, above all, to prevent significant risks – for the prognostic assessment of newly constructed or reconstructed enterprises, and for existing facilities – from the measurement data.

For a single point source mathematical model includes:

– raw data (results undertorch measurement characteristics of pollutants, sanitary protection and residential areas, the design parameters of the source and characteristics of the external environment for the worst-case);
– forecast concentrations of pollutants depending on the design parameters of the source and characteristics of an environment for a source with circular and rectangular mouth, hot and cold emissions, extremely dangerous low wind speeds;
– depending on the definition of the amendments to the measured concentrations due to the difference of the worst conditions from measurements;
– depending on the definition given to the worst conditions of the measured concentrations and their statistical processing in order to obtain:

a) the numerical characteristics of the density distribution of the concentration of pollutants emitted (mathematical expectations, standard deviations and correlation coefficients);
b) environmental risk α, defined at a relatively small number of trials as a multidimensional probability integral of the density distribution of the concentrations obtained with the numerical characteristics, and a large number of tests - the frequency of the measured concentrations exceeding;
c) environmental risks from air pollution αj separate pollutants;
d) depending on the definition of the numerical characteristics of the forecast distribution density is not measured (secondary) concentrations of pollutants emitted to address their risks when determining α and αj.

It is shown that, in accordance with applicable regulatory requirements must consider the risk of the negative impact of air pollution to humans, the level of which is determined using the values of the maximum one-time maximum allowable concentrations pollutants.

Defined by experienced stochastic patterns of distribution of contaminants in the atmosphere. Studied the random variation of concentrations. Theoretically and experimentally substantiated principles of developing a mathematical model to assess the actual risk from ecological point sources of emissions

Key words: environmental risk, a single source, the source of pollutants, mathematical model, the measured concentrations
 

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HUMAN AND SPACE / ЛЮДИНА ТА КОСМОС


Mizin V. V., Isakov O. A., Voitenko M. A., Lyashenko V. P. Interrelation between psychophysiological indices and autonomic adaptive response youth information overload

Мізін В. В., Ісаков О. А., Войтенко М. А., Ляшенко В. П. Взаємозв’язок між психофізіологічними показниками та вегетативними адаптаційними реакціями юнаків на інформаційне навантаження

DOI: 10.15421/031425

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Nowaday humanity lives in a super information world, which is marked by an increase in volume of auditory and visual information, the acceleration of change in the objective and the spirit world, increase information load in the form of electromagnetic waves caused by man. This can lead to information overload, the essence of which is that the amount of useful information coming exceed the objective possibilities of perception. The singular group, which is over loaded by information – the students.

The aim of the presented work was to identify the relationship between psychophysiological indices and vegetative adaptive responses of the students from the Dnepropetrovsk National University of Oles Gonchar on information overload, which may form the basis for the formation of curricula and educational work in high school and would like to offer some prognostic model of the functional state of the students in today's environment.

The study involved 120 students volunteer 2–3 courses of natural specialties Dnepropetrovsk National University of Oles Gonchar. To determine the physiological features and functional state of the students the program «Psychodiagnostics» was used. For registration of heart rate variability a heart rate monitor POLAR RS800CX was used. Testing was conducted before and after the information load. Information load carried by means of tests Schulte, Bourdon and Gorbova granted in computerized form.

In boys enrolled in natural specialties found high rates of properties of neural processes. Under the influence of information load indicator latent period of reaction time choosing two out of three was significantly decreased by 15 % and the rate of functional mobility of nervous processes that characterize the strength of nervous processes significantly decreased by 17 %. Mobility and balance the nervous processes when information load decreased. These changes in performance can indicate the presence of an imbalance of the autonomic nervous system stress due to information load. Resulting in uneven tasks and the lack of a clear rhythm work.

Under the influence of information load significantly increased capacity is very high-frequency range (VLF, ms2) and total power (Total, ms2). Exceeding the indicator VLF, may indicate an increased influence of humoral-metabolic mechanisms regulating heart rate. There is a tendency to increase of high-capacity and low-frequency spectra, and reduce the percentage of very low-frequency (HF) range. Also, the rate of vago-sympathetic tone (LF/HF) 2 times higher than normal, which may indicate the presence sympathicotonia.

Indicators spectral analysis of heart rate variability was significantly increased, the rate of the average standard deviation (SDNN) increased by 23 % and the prevalence rate of parasympathetic regulation of sympathetic link link (pNN50) by 37 %. These changes indicate activation of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system and low adaptive capacities of the autonomic nervous system. Our investigations have shown that young natural specialties of Dnepropetrovsk National University of Oles Gonchar are influenced by information load significantly deteriorated physiological parameters and heart rate variability. Infringement of autonomic adaptive responses leads to a decline in physical and mental performance of boys.

Key words: psychophysiological indicators vegetative adaptive responses, heart rate variability, students, information overload.
 

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Turitskaya T. G., Sidorenko A. G. Electrical activity dynamics of the hippocampus under caffeine influence

Турицька Т. Г., Сидоренко Г. Г. Динаміка електричної активності гіпокампа за умов тривалого введення кофеїну

DOI: 10.15421/031426

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Multiple studies have shown that the hippocampus is a major part of the limbic system of the brain. It has complex cyclic connections with other brain structures. The hippocampus is an area that stores the sensory information that is associated with effective programs of behavior. The projection of this region in the cortex creates a sense of emotional background, which is a factor of automatic extraction and evaluation of programs, in accordance with past experience, including programs got with a new consciousness. Neurons of hippocampus differ with a severe background activity. Up to 60% of neurons in the hippocampus are responding on the sensory stimulation. Electrical activity is a manifestation of complex shape analyzer processes in stimulating tissues. Changes in activity may indicate the occurrence of adaptive processes that are the result of stress- realizing and stress- limiting systems. One of the main roles in these systems plays hippocampus. The main neurotransmitters of synaptic stimulation in the hippocampus are glutamate. In the hippocampus under conditions of chronic stress are developing neurodegenerative processes in which primary importance belongs to prolonged changes in membrane potential of neurons that potentiate the action of glutamate on nerve cells. Balanced job of synaptic stimulation/inhibition and neurotransmitters systems is underlying the transmission, processing and storage of information in the hippocampus, as well as generating its rhythms, which is a kind of clock operating frequencies of the structure of the brain. Obviously, the various factors that affect the body from the outside can affect on recovery efficiency of electric shift of homeostasis. One of such factors are caffeinated substances, due to their inhibitory effect on phosphodiesterase and interaction with the purine receptors, which ultimately leads to the predominance of stimulating in the brain. In addition, for many decades consumption of caffeinated products with neuro-stimulating properties have greatly increased. Leaders in this list remain coffee and tea. Today the well-known biological effects of caffeinated substances are investigated their chemical composition and process of the transformation in the body. The wide range of research is due to the high consumption of these substances. The environmental factors indirectly or directly, in combination or single affect health, and the caffeinated substances can go to one of the best in strength and impact performance. In neurochemical mechanism of stimulating effect of caffeine plays an important role its ability to bind to specific ("purine" or adenosine) receptors in the brain, the endogenous ligand for which is purine nucleoside – adenosine. The structural similarity of molecules of caffeine and adenosine contributes to this. Since adenosine is seen as a factor that reduces the stimulating processes in the brain, replacing its caffeine results in stimulative effect. Prolonged use of caffeine promotes the formation of new adenosine receptors and the effect of caffeine gradually decreases. However, the sudden cessation of caffeine consumption, adenosine covers all receptors that may lead to increased inhibition with symptoms of fatigue, sleepiness, depression. The relevance of this work is determined by the following observations. Activating mechanism of action of these substances is launching adaptive responses that represent the interaction stress-activating and stress-limiting systems. Energy shortage of the last one under these conditions can appear the cause of many neurodegenerative patalohiy. What may occur in terms of the electroencephalogramm. Electrical activity of the hippocampus, in turn, is one of the indicators of the functional state, which plays an important role in adaptive-compensatory reactions. Therefore, we can assume that prolonged consumption of caffeinated substances can lead to neurodegenerative changes that will show itself in terms of power on hippocampogramm. Therefore, the present study has to identify the dynamics of the bioelectrical activity of the hippocampus of rats under prolonged consumption of caffeinated substances.

Experiments were carried out on non-linear white male rats. At the beginning rats were with weight 125–140 g. The animals were divided into 2 groups. The first group consisted of control animals (n = 20). The second group (n = 15) was presented by the animals feeded with pure caffeine in an amount of 150 mg/kg/day.

Registration of electrohippocampogramm was performed in acute experiments in the subgroup of 3–5 animals every 2 weeks throughout the study, which lasted for 8 weeks. Background electrical activity of the hippocampus were recorded using standard electrophysiological complex equipment. Recordings started when the electrical activity of the hippocampus disappeared drugs spindle. Each animal spent 10–12 records for 1–2 minutes and then these records are digitally stored on a personal computer and processed using the application package consisting of "MathCAD 2001". Analyzed spectral power (mkV2) and normalized power (%) waves of background electrical activity of the hippocampus within common frequency bands.

In the group of animals that continued to receive caffeine in its pure form at the beginning of experiment was observed desynchronization of rhythms in hippocampogramm that after 8 weeks of the study varied synchronization.

The results may indicate that the effect of coffeine substances on neurophysiological parameters of electrical activity of the hippocampus of rats reflects one of the many lines of action of some form of nutritional stress, which mechanisms relate to the agreed work and limiting and activating systems of the brain over time.

Key words: electrical activity, hippocampus, caffeine, normalized power
 

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Baldin A. A. Ecological aspect of launch vehicles development by criterion of minimal cost

Балдін О. О. Екологічний аспект створення ракет-носіїв за критерієм мінімальної вартості

DOI: 10.15421/031427

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One of the topical problems in modern aerospace engineering is accordance between ecological requirements and performance of the vehicle. On the other hand, problem of economical efficiency leads to change of the main criterion of designing to the minimization of costs (instead of maximal performance). According to modern trends of “low-cost” vehicles, different concepts of the future cost-effective launch vehicles are considered. It is necessary to validate these concepts according to requirements of ecological safety for the purpose of detection of the dominant launch vehicle configuration.

Typical configurations of the future 'low-cost' launch vehicle are presented by 6 conceptual groups (Koelle, 2001). Conceptual group 1 (CG1) is presented by the Ballistic “Single stage to orbit” (SSTO) reusable vehicle. All vehicles which use classical rocketry scheme of the propulsion trajectory are called “Ballistic” i.e. the ballistic vehicle is lifted to orbit under the impact of rocket engines thrust. CG1-vehicle is able to reach the low earth orbit (LEO) without stage separation reducing the number of required rocket engines. Technological feasibility of SSTO concepts is proven by numerous studies (Koelle, 2001). CG2 representatives are ballistic “Two stages to orbit” (TSTO) reusable vehicles. The difference between CG1 and CG2 consists in application of vacuum rocket engines in the second stage and, consequently, stage separation. CG2 are the most mass-effective vehicles. CG3 is presented by the winged SSTO vehicles with rocket propulsion by “Lifting body” aerodynamic scheme. Ascensional force is provided by the aerodynamic shape of the vehicle’s structure at high speeds. Winged TSTO vehicles with rocket propulsion and parallel or tandem staging form the CG4. The winged configuration provides wide landing capability for both stages.

CG5 is presented by winged TSTO vehicles with airbreathing propulsion in the first stage and rocket-propelled second stage. Airbreathing jet engines provide high reusability ratio comparing with other concepts as well as the widest landing capability. Aerospace Plane with scramjet-rocket propulsion forms CG6. The vehicle is able to reach near-cosmic speed in rarefied layers of the atmosphere and then accelerate with rocket engines.

The most ecologically important resemblance of represented concepts is reusability. This reduces space debris formation (due to lack of waste hardware). Reusable launch vehicles can also be used to return the spent satellites. Structural differences between the concepts form 3 criterions of comparison by ecological impact: 1) propellant toxicity; 2) safety of surface facilities (vehicle damage inside the atmosphere); 3) probability of space debris formation (vehicle damage outside the atmosphere). Comparison of the concepts by these criterions allows substantiating the most ecologically acceptable direction of research. Results of the comparison demonstrate that the most ecologically acceptable low-cost launch vehicle configuration is: Ballistic SSTO or TSTO reusable launch vehicle with “LOX+LH2” propellant. The results can be explained by following way: combustion products of the propellant “liquid oxygen + liquid hydrogen” are absolutely safe for environment. It also provides maximal performance of rocket engine (due to the highest specific impulse). Ballistic ascent scheme allows using relatively simple technologies and provides high reliability level. In combination with minimal time of atmospheric flight this provides high level of safety for surface facilities. These results may be used for substantiation of dominant research direction

Key words: ecological aspect; launch vehicle; minimal cost
 

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SHORT REPORTS / КОРОТКІ ПОВІДОМЛЕННЯ


Pishak V. P. V. I. Vernadsky and development of the theoretical foundations of ecology

Пішак В. П. В. І. Вернадський і розвиток теоретичних засад екології

DOI: 10.15421/031428

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150-years have passed since the birth of famous Ukrainian and Russian scientist, academician V. I. Vernadsky (1863–1945) – the founder and the first president of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (UAS), as well as the first scientific library in Ukraine. The genius of scientific predictions of V. I. Vernadsky is undeniable: he is the founder of geochemistry, biochemistry and genetic mineralogy; the doctrine about living substance and its role in the evolution of the biosphere and the noosphere theory; the reasoning of the concept of the biosphere – the sphere of living organisms, their place and role in placental scope; the development of biogeochemistry. "There is no more stable "acting" chemical force on the Earth than all the living organisms" – V. I. Vernadsky pointed (Vernadsky, 1965).

The scientist pointed that even in the early stages of life nascence the populations and communities always have been evolved. Thus, there is a set of organisms that are closely interacted with each other and with inanimate nature has arisen. According to Vernadsky, from the very beginning of the emergence of the biosphere, the living components (biomonomers and biopolymers) were differed by a great variety. Without such an initial heterogeneity of living systems on Earth, the conversion of solid, liquid and gaseous substances could not be carried out. Thus, the heterogeneity of the biosphere correlated with a variety of physical and chemical organization of different parts of the earth's surface.

The chemical elemental composition of the earth's surface as well as elemental composition of living organisms, which are directly involved in chemical transformations on Earth, have never been significantly changed during whole geological history. "The variety of living substance, and life have always performed various biogeochemical functions at the same time" – V. Vernadsky pointed. The chemical transformations, the circulation of substance are evolving in the same time, they are interconnected with the circulation of chemicals, which in turn depend on rain, seasonal and other cyclic changes of light, temperature, pressure – meaning the chronoperiodic changes – V. I. Vernadsky followed the idea of continuity of living substance in outer space.

Both – tasks and methodological bases of geochemistry and biogeochemistry were based in the theoretical ecology – environmental aspects of evolution, the principles of systemic analysis, biocenology problems, mathematical modeling, chronoperiodic reaction etc. Theoretical principles of ecology, developed by V. I. Vernadsky, their practical solution in some sections of biology led to the formation of different ecological areas: animal’s, plant’s and microorganism’s ecology, engineering ecology and others. Scientist drew the great attention to human ecology. With the changing of socio-economic formations, a role of a human in biosphere life has increased, especially in an era of scientific and technological revolution. The human activities as a source of energy, the active economic activity of Homo sapiens, the appearance of chemicals of anthropogenic origin, – these and many other directions of human activity allowed V. I. Vernadsky substantiate the place and role of new environmental factor – the noosphere, and hence a new research area – noospherology.

Theoretical bases of ecology, developed by V. I. Vernadsky, find their practical implementation in medicine: the development of molecular genetics, genomic medicine, and detection of genetic predisposition to many diseases, so-called multifactorial diseases, environmental protection, the formation of new medicine areas – predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory one. Nowadays, the biomedical community, motivated by works of V. I. Vernadsky, feces the new horizons of therapy, diagnostics and prevention of diseases, based on the environmental factors.

Key words: V. I. Vernadsky, biosphere, ecology
 

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REVIEWS / РЕЦЕНЗІЇ


 

Травлеев А. П., Белова Н. А.  Книга, посвященная популяциям редких видов растений – Злобин Ю. А., Скляр В. Г., Клименко А. А. Популяции редких видов растений, теоретические основы и  методика изучения. – Сумы : Университетская книга, 2013. – 440 с.

Travleyev A. P., Bilova N. A. The book dedicated to the populations of rare plant species – Zlobin Yu. A., Sklyar V. G., Klimenko A. A. Populations of rare species of plants, theoretical principles and methods of the study. – Sumy : University Book, 2013. – 440 p.

DOI: 10.15421/031429

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Maintenance of ecological balance is an important aspect of rational nature management, environmental protection, human health preservation.

It is known that a pesticidal press is a substantial ecological factor affecting the structure and the elements of cenosis. However, estimation of the state of cenoses and predicting their response on the anthropogenic influences are often difficult, and sometimes are simply impossible for lack of data on many directions of anthropogenic influence, including in pesticide loadings. In this connection, the monograph of А. М. Sumarokov appears as an extremely actual one, because it fills in the blank of our knowledge on the indicated issue. During many years, including the time of wide use of pesticides (1983–1989) and the period of considerable reduction of their use (1999–2005), the author was conducting the study of comparative species composition and ecological structure of herpetobiont Coleоptera in the main cenosis of Ukrainian steppe zone. The results of the long-term regular field stationary watching the state of koleopterofauna are unique not only for Ukraine but also for all space of the former USSR. The conclusions of the author bring a substantial contribution to entomology, in particular to impression and formation of entomocomplexes of agrocenoses and adjoined biogeocenosis. It is convincingly shown by the author, that the intensification of agricultural production, based on wide-range application of pesticides, reduces the biotic potential of biogeocenoses catastrophically. Thus, the reduction of the use of pesticides does not cause the height of losses of harvest of basic agricultural crops; obviously, it is related to strengthening of regulator activity of etnomofags, the closeness of that in the second period of researches grew more than in 10 times as compared to the first period. In addition, through the analysis of the findings
А. М. Sumarokov made the row of interesting theoretical substantiations, in particular, about coenotic status of agrobiocenoses considered by the author not as artificial formations, but as anthropogenically broken natural biocenoses, they also bring a substantial contribution to ecological science. With regards to practical recommendations, they are fully reasonable and have an important national economic value. The monograph of А. М. Sumarokov is a fundamental contribution to ecological science, and its substantive findings can be applied with some nuances in any country of the world, growing the field agricultural crops.

Key words: a pesticidal press, entomocomplexe, Ukrainian steppe zone.
 

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