2016, Vol. 27. #3-4


ECOLOGICAL AND GENETIC STUDIES OF PHYTOCENOSES /ЕКОЛОГІЧНІ ТА ГЕНЕТИЧНІ ДОСЛІДЖЕННЯ ФІТОЦЕНОЗІВ


Kvesić S., Ballian D., Parpan T. V. Allozyme variation among european beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stands in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Квезіч С., Балліан Д., Парпан Т.В. Аллозимна варіантність букових деревостанів (Fagus Sylvatical.) y Боснії та Герцеговині

DOI:10.15421/031609

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From the economical and ecological point of view, beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is one of the most important forest tree species in Bosnia and Herzegovina. To understand the significance of beech forests, something about the structure of forests and forest lands needs to be said. Bosnia and Herzegovina has 3.231.500 hectares of forests and forest land, which is about 60% of its surface. In the forest and forest lands structure, we can see that it has high forest occupying 51.1% of the forest area, coppice occupying 38.70%, shrubs occupying 4%, bare land and clearings occupying 5.80% and other unproductive areas occupying 0.40%. Beech can be found in mixed stands of beech and fir, as well as stands of beech, fir and spruce that occupy 46% of all high forests. Thus, the total area of forests where the beech is found is approximately 1.652.400 hectares.

The aim of the study was to carry out the analysis of genetic structures of natural beech populations in Bosnia and Herzegovina by using isoenzyme markers. Conducting a biochemical genetic structure analysis of 14 beech populations, using 10 enzyme systems with 16 isoenzyme gene loci, we found significant differences. Variability in some gene loci is large, while some populations for some gene loci showed monomorphism.

The results indicate that in order to maintain natural genetic resources of common beech in Bosnia and Herzegovina, there should be a dense network of gene reserves established. This network from one of the Balkan countries should then become a constituent part of all-European network. These gene banks need in situ and ex situ methods (seed banks, seed stands, and seed orchards) to maintain the genetic diversity of populations. Based on the research results, every ecological niche of common beech i.e. their genetic variation should be conserved regarding the appropriate number of populations and individuals to preserve the ecological and physiological features of this valuable commercial species.

Key words: European beech, isoenzymes, genetic variability and differentiation
 

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Baranovski B. А. Non-native species in the vascular flora of the national park «Samarsky Bir»

Барановський Б. А. Чужорідні види судинних рослин національного парку «Самарський бір»

DOI: 10.15421/031610

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Results of non-native flora surveys on Samara Dniprovska River valley within the designed National Park «Samarsky Bir» were analyzed in the paper. Scientific justification on first stage creation of the national-level National Park «Samarsky Bir» was prepared in 2012. Its area included the main park area with floodplain, arena and gully landscapes of the rivers Samara and Oril interstream. List of vascular plant species on floodplain, arena and gully habitats of Prisamar'ya counted 887 species. They are classified as 5 divisions, 6 classes, 108 families, 429 genera. This article presents a list of non-native flora fraction with bioecological characteristic of the plant species. The surveys were conducted by conventional methods on vascular flora studying. Analysis of the main plant ecomorphs was carried out by A. L. Belgard ecomorph system (1950).

Invasion of plant species in the steppe zone of Ukraine has a long history complicated by significant anthropogenic transformation of the territory. We investigated the status of non-native plants, their ecomorphs, and tendency to invasiveness on the territory of National Park «Samarsky Bir» designed. Presence of 195 adventitious vascular plant species belonging to 48 families was determined. Of them, 7 families with the greatest abundance of non-native species contained 113 taxa (58 % of the total); 20 families were represented with 2–7 advents, and 20 families contained only 1 non-native species. Thus, today the share of non-native species in the vascular flora of the region accounted for nearly 22 %. Most of adventitious species are mesoxerophytes and xeromesophytes. In a cenomorphic relationship, vegetation being ruderal on the territory of Ukraine is dominated in composition of non-native flora. Within the total number of adventitious species, archaeophytes amount up 44 %, whereas neophytes come up to 56 %. The greatest abundance of adventitious species has been found in Brassicaceae, Asterasea and Poaceae families (15 %, 12 %, and 11 % of the total, respectively).

119 non-native vascular plant species were found in the steppe cenoses, 79 species in the gully and watershed forests, 90 species in floodplain forests, and 52 species on the territory of the sandy terrace. Among all the non-native species, 28 species have been identified as invasive, and there was a trend to increased invasiveness of some species in recent years. Among heterogenous species 12 of them were identified as invasive, and there was a tendency to increase theinvasiveness of some species in recent years. The analysis provided on non-native flora in the National Park evidences significant anthropogenic transformation of the territory; that requires establishment of appropriate regime on protection of this important ecological object.
Key words: non-native species, ecomorphes, hygromorphes, cenomorphes, archaeophytes, neophytes, invasiveness
 

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Sytnyk S. A., Lovynska V. M., Maslikova K. P. The basic density stems of the main wood species in the forest stands within northern steppe of Ukraine

Ситник С. А., Ловинська В. М., Маслікова К. П. Базисна щільність стовбурів головних деревних порід лісостанів північного степу України

DOI: 10.15421/031611

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The goal of this research is determination the values average basic wood’s density in the bark of Pinus silvestrys (Scots pine) and Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust). It is established the depending of searching parameter from the main biometric characteristics of trees such as age, diameter of the trunk on the height 1.3 m (d1,3) and height (h) of the trees.

The experimental data to determine basic wood density obtained on the thirty temporary plots (sample), where were felled thirty model trees and carried out their evaluation by the fraction.

The basic wood’s density in the bark was analyzed according to the main biometric indexes the model trees: age, diameter and height of tree.

For the studied species, both for Scots pine, and black locust noted the gradual increase the average basic wood’s density in the bark with growing age of the trees. Thus, for Scots pine fixed the minimum value (245 kg•(m3)-1) of basic wood’s density for the sample in the youngest age, and then recorded the temperate increase this parameter. The maximum value fixed for the oldest sample (90 years). By analyzing of the change average basic wood density in the bark of black locust found that the maximum value of this index (605 kg•(m3)-1) was recorded for trees in the age 84 years that belonging to the overmature age group, while the minimum value (438 kg•(m3)-1) have the trees in the age 30 years. The distinctions in the value of the average basic density are 27.6%. More high value of basic wood’s density in the bark have the black locust sample compared with Scots pine. The percentage difference between the maximum value of both investigated species is 22.5%.

The average basic wood’s density is characterized by increasing type with the age. It was observed both for Scots pine, and black locust. The established dependence of changes of wood basic density of black locust can be related with the proportionate changes in parenchyme tissue and structural elements of xylem vessels.

The value of the average basic wood’s density increases with growing diameter at breast height and reaching the maximum values 439–469 kg•(m3)-1) in the Scots pine sample with diameters from 24.3 to 26.1 cm, and then decline. The absolute value of the average basic wood density in the bark is characterized by the significant variation relative to the trend line. The average basic wood’s density in the bark depending on the height tree. The highest index (469 kg•(м3)-1) established for the sample with a height of 22.3 m. Within these altitudes are concentrated the highest values of the studied parameter. Analyzing the data in another study species (black locust) it should be noted that the basic wood’s density in the bark is the constant value. There is observed a few variation of the values of basic wood’s density in bark relative trend line. This fact can be explained by the different age of the sample of Robinia pseudoacacia and its impact on the basic wood’s density in the bark. Thus, this index gradually increases with the aged trees and with the increase diameter and height and then decreases for trees with a maximum diameter (27.4 and 28.6 cm) and height (21.6 and 22 7 m). The maximum value the basic wood’s dencity in the bark (605 kg•(m3)-1) fixed for the sample black locust with a height 24 m and the diameter 15.7 cm.

The results of correlation analysis shown the close correlation between the value average wood’s density in the bark both for black locust, and Scots pine with a diameter 1.3 m and height of trees. All correlation coefficients of basic wood’s density in the bark for both studied species with the diameter and height of trees, or else the density of these indexes have a direct relationship. Closely (r = +0,61+0,62) correlation found for basic wood’s density in the bark for Scots pine with height trees, while for black locust the closely correlation found with both studied biometric parameters as for diameter and height. The average wood’s density in the bark of Scots pine is a few weak (r = +0,55), but significant correlation with stem diameter.

Overall, the studied parameters change with the diameter and height of the trunk and depend on the age of the tree. Identified laws allow to establish of the mathematic depends for assessing components of biomass stem. It is necessary to study the biological productivity of forests.
Key words: the basic wood’s density in the bark, Northern Steppe of Ukraine, biometric indexes of trees, Pinus sylvestris L., Robinia pseudoacacia L.
 

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Gofman O. P. History of research of phytomass of steppe vegetable groupments in reserve steppe «Askania-Nova»

Гофман О. П. Історія досліджень фітомаси степових рослинних угруповань у Біосферному заповіднику «Асканія-Нова»

DOI: 10.15421/031612

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Complex research of productive processes of ecosystems of different level was begun by the International union of biological sciences (International Union of Biological Sciences – IUBS), that in 1964 initiated development of the International biological program (International Biological Program, IBP) for research of the biological productivity of biogeocenosis of dry land and reservoirs. Scientists from many countries, that participated in execution put IBP of tasks, investigated the biological productivity of natural and created by the man of vegetable and animal community in the scale of all planet.

Research of the biological productivity and phytomass on territory of dry steppe in Askania-Nova began to carry out yet 150 over back. Unfortunately, there were protracted gaps in researches, however, beginning from 1949 they can be considered continuous. And without regard to the slump of interest in the study of the productivity in 1990–2000, in Biosphere reserve «Askania-Nova», due to the active collective of scientists, research not interrupted. Therefore the far of fact sheets accumulated as a result of the advanced study of many researchers.

In summarizing works for histories of botanical researches of askanian steppe authors anymore paid attention to description of history of reserve, in works the given description of researchers of the protected steppe with pointing of direction of their works, analysis of succession changes of vegetation, research of change of floristic composition, but the results of study of phytomass are not almost lighted up. Thus there was an urgent necessity of estimation and generalization up-to-date development of science of previous works of scientists in relation to above-ground and underground phytomass of vegetable community of askanian steppe.

Aim of this work : to systematize and conduct the retrospective review of the advanced studies there are the lighted up results of research of above-ground and underground phytomass of vegetable community of askanian steppe in that.

Materials scientific publications served as for work, scientific current documentation of Biosphere reserve «Askania-Nova» the names of F. E. Falz-Fein and Askania Nova institute of animal breeding in the steppe regions named after M. F. Ivanov. The worked out sources were brought to the bibliographic database, spreadsheet of Microsoft Excel executed in a format. To the table basic descriptions of literary source were brought in: the name of work, year of publication, name of edition, direction of researches, short annotation. For this temporal segment 3 stages of researches are distinguished: І (1842–1948) – for it typical works of descriptive direction; ІІ (1948–1990) – the subjects of the advanced studies of ecological direction are distinguished; ІІІ (1990 till this time) is appearance of the advanced studies sanctified to the study of phytomass by means of the new controlled from distance methods of research. First period protracted, but it only through considerable interruption in researches after works of F. Teetzmann in 1845, up to 1924, when in the Askania-Nova begins to work M. S. Shalyt. And this period differs in the least amount of the written works (4). The considerable are accumulated the archived materials on phytomass give an opportunity more detailed to describe her changes and dynamics.
Key words: Askania-Nova, protected regime, above-ground phytomass, underground phytomass, steppe vegetation
 

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ZOOCENOSES AS A COMPONENT OF BIOGEOCENOSIS /ЗООЦЕНОЗ ЯК КОМПОНЕНТ БІОГЕОЦЕНОЗУ


Holoborodko K. K., Makhina V. O., Buchnieva K. S., Pakhomov O. E. Globally endangered butterflies (Lepidoptera) protected in the natural reserve «Dniprovsko-Orilsky»

Голобородько К. К., Махіна В. О., Бучнєва К. С., Пахомов О. Є. Глобально рідкісні види лускокрилих (Lepidoptera), що охороняються в природному заповіднику «Дніпровсько-Орільський»

DOI: 10.15421/031613

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Floodplain valley of the Dnieper river midstream is a unique natural complex, having a great bìogeographical, ecological, environmental, historical and recreational values. In 1990, the Natural reserve «Dniprovsko-Orilsky» was established within the area. The Natural reserve «Dniprovsko-Orilsky» is environmentally protected site within the Dnipropetrovsk region, Dnipropetrovsk oblast, Ukraine. This reserve occupies part of the Dnieper river valley and marshy and reedy banks of Protovch river (existing bed of Oril river). It was created by Regulation of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of 15 September 1990, No. 262, based on common zoological and ornitological Nature reserves «Taromskì plavni» and «Obukhovskie zaplavy».

On the territory of the Natural reserve «Dniprovsko-Orilsky», they were registered 32 Lepidoptera species listed in the List of Threatened Species at different categories (5 species in IUCN Red List ; 18 in Red Data Book of Ukraine; 7 in European Red List of plants and animals endangered on a global scale; 31 in Red Book of Dnipropetrovsk oblast).

The main scientific materials were author’s collections from area of research and materials of entomological funds, Department of Zoology and Ecology, Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University (mostly Memorial Collection of V. O. Barsov). Field surveys covered all the ecosystems basic on size and degree of protection. The author’s researches have conducted over the past decade during annual expeditions to the Reserve.

Taxonomic structure of the complex is quite diverse, and represented by all the major families of higher millers and rhopalocera, having protectedstatus. In relation to taxonomy, this complex formed by representatives of five superfamilies (Zyganoidea, Noctuoidea, Bombycoidea, Hesperioidea, Papilionoidea) from 11 families (Zygaenidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae, Noctuidae Arctiidae Hesperiidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Satyridae, Lycaenidae).

High taxonomic diversity can be explained by unique geographical location of the reserve in azonal conditions of the Dnieper river valley. Such location allows to enter different zoogeographic Lepidoptera groups on the reserve territory. Zoogeographic analysis of species protected within the reserve territory selected 7 basic groups. It was found that most of the globally rare species have Mediterranean origin (39 %); species of Palearctic origin are in second place (22 %); Western Palearctic and Ponto-Kazakh types of areas are same of number of species, and come third (11 %); and others come 17 % (European, Euro-Siberian, and Holarctic). This fauna component is specific due to presence of so-called «northern» species that make up 40 % (representatives of Palearctic, Western Palearctic, Euro-Siberian, European and Holarctic groups). Their existence within the reserve territory is only possible due to development of boreal valley ecosystems.

Key words: globally rare species of Lepidoptera, Lepidoptera, fauna, natural reserve «Dniprovsko-Orelsky»
 

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Listopadsky M. A. An importance of soil humidification in forming of avifauna of arboreal plantation in the Biosphere reserve «Askania Nova» (un-reproductive period)

Листопадський М. А. Вплив ґрунтового зволоження на формування орнітофауни деревостанів Біосферного заповідника «Асканія-Нова» (нерепродуктивний період) 

DOI: 10.15421/031614

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With gradient analysis investigated the role of soil moisture in the formation of the modern population of birds in the reserve forest plantations. Soil moisture was divided into seven grades. For this purpose used grass cover and the coefficient of local moistening. His proposed PhD L. P. Travleev. This method allows knowing the degree of influence of soil moisture at the birds. We analyzed birds species composition, population, placement in space and power of influence factors (soil moisture). Investigations were carried out on the territory of the Biosphere Reserve «Askania Nova».

We studied the birds which live in the reserve at the end of the summer, autumn and winter. This happened from 2006 to 2013 years. Specially was studied as permanently specific form of birds is found in a particular humidity. The degree of coupling was studied using the amount of information that transmits to the local bird humidification. For 68 species of birds are the options of the population density, coefficient koligatsii and data communication with the seven variants of soil moisture. For all kinds of set information «price» of each option dampening that contributes to the formation of a particular community of birds. Thus, the defined contribution to the formation of soil moisture forest bird communities. Species representation and density gradient within the test moisture is not in direct linear relationship from moisture and ranges from 11 (very coldly) to 50 species (moist soil). The density of the community varies from 0,5 birds / hectare (very dry) to 269 birds / hectare (fresh soil). The strongest link between the information and the formation of moisture gradient structure avifauna is typical in a fresh soil – bird on the edge, and wet – forest representatives.

These types of humidification function is performed starting in the formation of two major blocks dendrophilous community. The steppe birds give way to forest representatives when the soil slightly moist. The main conclusion of our study includes the following: than wetter the soil the more species of birds lives in the forest; some graduation humidity are the most important for separate species of birds; it is very important for birds, there are places where one can drink water. Further invasive alien species can occur where the soil is moist. Forest with dry soil is already fully occupied by birds.

Key words: biosphere reserve, humidification gradient, tree stand, birds, community, structure formation, typology, factor gradient, soil moisture
 

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Marenkov O. N. Transformation of Dnepr (Zaporizhia) reservoir`s fish fauna: retrospective review and current status

Маренков О. М. Трансформація іхтіофауни Дніпровського (Запорізького) водосховища: ретроспективний огляд та сучасний стан 

DOI: 10.15421/031615

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Creation of reservoirs by regulation of the Dnieper River and small rivers caused significant changes in the conditions of existence and affected on fish biodiversity of pondsof Prydniprovya. To the anthropogenic factors influencing the species composition of fish fauna factors of technical and fishery character can be included. Technical impact on water bodies is associated with the creation of new artificial lakes, ecosystems of which are not stable and are influenced by invasive processes.

Fisheries management measures include work on the introduction of new species of fish that primarily have economic importance for the development of industrial fishing. Work on the introduction of new species have both positive and negative effects, but nevertheless new species affect natively on fish fauna. This transforms biota of reservoir and creates conditions for further spread of new species, increasing their numbers, creating new ecological relationships in the ecosystem of the pond. In the formation of the Dnieper (Zaporizhia) reservoir`s fish fauna it is traditionally defined five stages: the first stage is before building a dam to the Dnieper (until 1931) when there was a natural Dnieper rapids area, inhabited by migratory, semi-migratory and local fish; the second stage is the beginning of formation of reservoir`s fish fauna with the gradual disappearance of reophilic and dominance of limnophilic species (1931–1941); the third stage is the restoration of fish populations of Dnieper rapids due to destruction of dam during the Second World War (1941–1947); fourth stage is the secondary formation of ichtiocenosis of reservoir after recovery of dam (1947–1960); fifth stage is reforming of the structure of fish fauna in terms of cascade (creation of Dnieper reservoirs) and anthropogenic pressures (from 1961 to the present period). The first stage is defined by period of filling the reservoir. After the construction of Zaporozhye hydroelectric station the process of rebuilding fish fauna took place. In the early years of the reservoir existence migratory and semi-migratory fish have naturally disappeared. The species composition of fish fauna has decreased by 11 taxons. The number of reophilic species has markedly reduced and remained predominantly in the upper river part of the reservoir. The lower part of reservoir with sustained hydrological regime has been being actively assimilated by fish of limnophilic complex. The second and third stages are associated with the destruction of the dam during the Second World War and the short restoration of hydrobiological regime of Dnieper rapids, until the re-filling of the reservoir and its final transformation into a regulated pond. The flow of these two phases has not influenced significantly the structure of industrial ichtyocomplex total number of species at that time was 38 taxons. The fourth stage involves fishery exploitation of reservoir.

With the aim of the purposeful impact on formation of industrial fish fauna of the Dnieper (Zaporizhia) reservoir, considering sufficient development of natural fodder the works on artificial introduction of new species were carried out in the years 1950-1960. The fifth stage of development and current state of fish fauna of reservoir is characterized by the emergence and spread of invasive species. During the period of existence of the Dnieper (Zaporizhia) reservoir ichthyofauna of the reservoir has substantially transformed. In the modern fish fauna of reservoir there are 52 species of fish which are representatives of 14 families. Compared with the period of existence of Dnieper River before its regulation the number of species remained at the same level, but the species composition and structure of fish fauna changed drastically due to the loss of some species and the emergence of other species, mostly unwanted invaders. Changing the number of species is related to several factors. Firstly, process of spread of species upstream took place after the disappearance of Dnieper Rapids and rise of mineralization. Secondly, with the deliberate introduction of fish with purpose of fishery exploitation of the reservoir, and as a consequence randomly invasion of some species that came from fish farms. Thirdly, emergence of new species is also connected with the deliberate release of fish to the open water, similarly Pumpkinseed Sunfish Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758) has appeared in the Dnipro (Zaporizhia) reservoir, which is well acclimatized and has broadly extended its habitat in reservoirs of Dnipropetrovsk region. Today about 31 % of fish species of Dnieper (Zaporizhia) reservoir is adventitious. The process of genesis of fish fauna of the Dnieper (Zaporizhia) reservoir is still ongoing and it is connected with the subsequent emergence of new species and rise of their numbers. Such changes in the fish fauna of reservoir can harm fisheries because the vast majority of fish aliens are competitors by food for young commercially valuable fish species.

Key words: ichthyofauna, fish aliens, Dnieper (Zaporizhia) reservoir, introduced species, adventitious species
 

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BIOINDICATION OF CITY ENVIRONMENT / БІОІНДИКАЦІЯ УРБОСЕРЕДОВИЩА


Tyulkova Е. G. Phytoindication and lichenmonitoring of Gomel city urbanized landscape state and adjacent territories

Тюлькова Е. Г. Фитоиндикация и лихеномониторинг состояния урболандшафтов г. Гомеля и прилегающих территорий  

DOI: 10.15421/031616

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In Belarus Republic the increase tendency in size and number of emissions per square kilometer of the territory from stationary sources is observed in case of decrease in emissions from mobile sources in recent years. Among separate ingredients across the Gomel region growth of sulfur dioxide in emissions from engineering procedures stationary sources is noted that in total is a negative factor for growth and development of region vegetation.

The vegetable cover which is characterized by lack of an opportunity to avoid technogenic impact in comparison with other indicators is the most indicative and quickly reacting indicator of industrial enterprises activities influence.

Features of sheet device of wood plants morphometry of plants adaptation strategy element in the conditions of technogenic impact and in habitats various on soil wealth and productivity were studied by many researchers in detail. Besides, the lichenindikation belongs to one of effective environment pollution indication methods.

However, comparative assessment of the various biological parameters indicator importance and reasons of the most informative characteristics complex for determination of territorial complexes transformation under the industrial influence production is most urgent for extent assessment of ecosystems transformation under the technogenic impact influence.

Proceeding from the aforesaid, the work purpose consists in determination of such informative bioindicator indicators as a sheet plate morphometry and a lichensmonitoring for vegetation technogenic change assessment in impact industrial enterprises zone of Gomel city.

As research objects were chosen a drooping birch Betula pendula, a white poplar Populus deltoides and a maple acutifoliate Acer platanoides. These trees are one of the most widespread and the researched territories which are often found on.

Collection of plant material was carried out during the vegetative period (July, August) 2015– 2016. From each pilot tree (3–5 on each site) from height of 1,5–2 m from the surface of the soil broke 20–25 intact most developed leaves at which determined length, width of a sheet plate.

For carrying out a lichenmonitoring used a method of visual assessment and a method of linear crossings.

As a result of the comparative analysis of most widespread representatives of wood plants sheet plate length and width it was established that the morphometry of drooping birch leaves Betula pendula and maple acutifoliate Acer platanoides and their standard deviation from average value increases in process of decrease industrial enterprises level technogenic influence in 2015–2016, except for white poplar Populus deltoides leaf length in 2015–2016, and also a standard deviation of drooping birch Betula pendula leaves morphometry and white poplar Populus deltoides in 2015 in the northern industrial zone. The sheet device of inspection zones is characterized by larger sizes in comparison with industrial zones.

The dispersive analysis results demonstrate that sheet plate wood plants morphometric parameters statistically authentically differ in case of various size technogenic pollution action on their forming and development that confirms a use this criterion possibility for atmospheric air pollution indication.

As a result of a lichenmonitoring growth of bushy lichens in zones with lower technogenic loading and more considerable projective covering the crustose lichens on trees bark from more intensive technogenic influence territory is established.

Perhaps effectively to use the integrated approach considering the sheet device morphometric analysis and a lichenmonitoring for vegetable cover indication of technogenic influence.

Key words: technogenic impact, drooping birch Betula pendula, white poplar Populus deltoids, maple acutifoliate Acer platanoides, sheet plate length, sheet plate width, phytoindication, lichens, lichenmonitoring
 

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ECOLOGICAL SOIL SCIENCE / ЕКОЛОГІЧНЕ ҐРУНТОЗНАВСТВО


Gorban V. A. The role of the structure to provide biogeocenotic soil functions

Горбань В. А. Роль структуры в обеспечении биогеоценотических функций почв 

DOI: 10.15421/031617

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There is a presentation of analysis of the structural state role in the manifestation of biogeocenotic soil functions, which are due to their physical, chemical and biochemical, physical-chemical, information, integrity properties.

The main role in the formation of the structure of living space manifests itself in existence, due to the presence in soil aggregates of different sizes and structures, of numerous and diverse ecological niches for soil organisms. The participation of structure in providing housing and shelter is evident in its impact on the majority of soil conditions. The role of the structure in the manifestation of the support is associated with fixing function in plants through the soil root system, as well as with structural features of the surface soil, which is used by animals when moving. The participate of structure in preservation of plant seeds, eggs and larvae of animal is due to the formation of aggregated soil optimal living conditions for living organisms. The structure plays an important role in realization of the soil nutrients and source connections, as plants are able to obtain only minerals in dissolved form and the optimal conditions for this can provide only soil with qualitative waterproof structure. The structure also participates in the formation of a depot of nutrients, energy and moisture, most of which are found in soil and aggregates that can be made available to living organisms after their destruction. The role of the of structure in providing stimulator function and inhibitor of biochemical processes is evident in the formation of a kind of the medium through which the interaction of the root systems of plants, as well as providing conditions for humification and mineralization of soil organic matter. The influence of the structure on the sorption of particulate material coming from the atmosphere is evident in its involvement in the formation of structural units of the soil. The role of the structure in the sorption of fine soil microorganisms living in the soil is due to the fact that this process is largely determined by the shape of aggregates, mineral composition and organic matter, which are included in their composition. The features of the structure to provide a signal function to the seasonal biological processes are related to the determining the influence of the aggregate composition of the soil at its thermal regime, which mainly depends on all biological processes in the soil. The role of the structure in the regulation of number and composition of the ecological community is due to the existence of the relationship between aggregate soil composition and characteristics of ecological community that exists on it.

Participation in the launch of some of the structures of succession occurs mainly at the sharp deterioration of the structural state of the soil, which may be associated with the processes of water and wind erosion. The role of the structure to provide a «memory» of biogeocoenosis is explained by quite stable structural state of the natural ecosystems of the soil in the absence of catastrophic processes, which is able to store information about the features of the state of other components of biogeocoenosis. Participation of the structure in the transformation of matter and energy entering biogeocoenosis is due to the constant transformation of minerals, grain size elements, organic matter and other constituent parts of the soil in the process of aggregation. The role of the structure in the display of the sanitary function is due to the fact that there is a degradation of organic residues and metabolic products of living organisms in the soil, its antiseptic properties is best evident only in well-structured soil.

The value of the structure in the function of the protective screen and buffer biogeocenotic screen provision is most fully shown in the soils of natural ecosystems with a favorable and stable structural state, due to which ecosystems are protected from mechanical destruction under the influence of various factors – water, wind, gravity force. Despite the cited aspects of the role of structure manifestation in providing biogeocenotic soil functions there is a need for further detailed research in this area.

Key words: aggregate composition, structure, biogeocoenosis, environmental soil functions
 

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ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF WATER BODIES / ЕКОЛОГІЧНІ ДОСЛІДЖЕННЯ ВОДОЙМ


Klimenko M. O., Zaleskyi I. I., Biedunkova O. O. Environmental evaluation of geochemical changes in bottom sediments of Ustia headwater

Клименко М. О., Залеський І. І., Бєдункова О. О. Екологічний аналіз геохімічних змін донних відкладів малої річки Устя

DOI: 10.15421/031618

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Any changes to anthropogenic impact within the watersheds involving the transformation of ecosystem relationships cause irreversible changes in the structure and composition of sediments. The objective of the research was to analytically compare the results of the study on heavy metals in Ustia River sediments with the use of various methods for determining environmental geochemical changes in headwaters due to human transformation of the basin between 1994 and 2015.

Ustia River experienced the highest anthropogenic impact during 1968–1994. Starting from 1968 and up to the present time the wastewater volume disposed to the river is more than 25 m3 per day. Despite the downturn in the national economy since the mid 90-ies of the 20th century, the negative impact on the environment of surface water area does not stop.

The environmental evaluation of the bottom sediments of Ustia River was held basing on the results of spectral analysis of air-dried samples of silt fraction from the selected samples. The researcher analysed the content of heavy metals which emission takes place within the river basin as a result of runoff generated by chemical and woodworking industries, transport, wastewater and agricultural use of the territory, particularly Pb, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn and Cd.

For the first time, researchers have figured out that for the past twenty years there has been no improvement in the overall ecological state of the Ustia River bottom sediments. The human impacts on the hydro-ecosystem, assessed according to the content of heavy metals, have moderated only in the river section near the headstream. The author views this fact as a consequence of reduced chemicals’ usage (i.e. fertilizers, pesticides, compost, sewage and animal waste) on the cultivated land in this part of the basin.

The remaining sections of riverbed have experienced deterioration of the bottom sediments; it is particularly notable with regard to the content of such elements as Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb within the urban areas. The increase of the concentrations of metals in the sediments near Basiv Kut Dam Lake in 2015, compared with the relevant data for 1994, can serve as the evidence that the negative impact on hydro-ecosystem has intensified.

In both observation periods the bottom sediments of the upper part of the river has demonstrated extremely high content of Mn. Hence, in 1994 it markedly declined in the central section of the stream, and in 2015 it appeared in significant concentrations in the sediments along the channel. It is obvious that in this case there are geochemical features of the basin; however the situation in 2015 indicates a change in the state of bottom sediments with regard to the content of Mn under the influence of anthropogenic factors. The analysis of the geochemical changes in bottom sediments of Ustia headwater from 1994 until 2015 show that the concentrations of such elements as Cu, Zn, Pb, Co and Cd in the bottom sediments according to 2015 data turned out to be higher compared to 1994, excluding the upper part of the river. Nevertheless the geochemical anomalies of Mn contents noticed along the channel are also the case in this situation.

The level of anthropogenic impact, measured in terms of total pollution index for the concentration of heavy metals in bottom sediments in both observation periods appeared to be «weak» or «slightly increased» if there were toxic elements. Hence, if in 1994 there was a high risk of pollution of bottom sediments with such elements as zinc, lead and copper both in case of the relative background values and hygiene criteria (maximum allowable concentrations in soil), in 2015 cobalt also appeared among such elements.

The level of contamination of sediments according to international contamination classes mainly shows «significant» and «increased» impact on different parts of the river for the Mn content (5–6 grades) in both observation periods; the Cu and Zn content vary from «low» to «moderate» in 1994 (1–3 grades) and from «low» to «substantial» in 2015 (2–4 grades); the Pb content is «poor» (grade 1) in 1994 and «moderate» in 2015; Co and Cd content describes human impact on hydro-ecosystem as «weak» in both periods (0–1 grades). The assessment methods used by the researcher allowed tracking various aspects of heavy metal pollution in the bottom sediments. Furthermore, they help discovering that nowadays the sediments of Ustia River play the role of anthropogeny outcome battery against the geochemical anomalies of individual elements.

Key words: bottom sediments, heavy metals, pollution level, human impacts
 

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Yarovyi S. O., Arabadzhy L. I. To the study Cyanoprokaryota some waters of the Pryazovia national natural park

Яровий C. О., Арабаджи Л. І. До вивчення Cyanoprokaryota деяких водойм Приазовського національного природного парку

DOI: 10.15421/031619

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In the article, some data in studying blue-and-green algae (Cyanoprokariota) of the Pryazovia Natural Park are given. The objects of the nature protected stock of Ukraine are unique reservoirs of the most valuable landscapes and biodiversity not only in this country but also beyond its borders. Its is very important to analyse the state and ecological changes of different biotopes by the methods of algoindication.

Blue-and-green algae take part in various processes and clearly react to the change of the environment state, and therefore they are a convenient indicator of negative phenomena, since microflora reacts to the environment changes very clearly. Blue-and-green algae can be just an ecological component of biotopes.

The aim of our work was to study the specific composition and systematic structure of blue-and-green algae of some water bodies of the park, to give an ecological and geographical description and to analyse their participation in some places of increases according to the zones of self-cleaning and geographical distribution. The urgency of this article consists in the fact, that the Pryazovia National Natural Park (PNNP) is one of the objects of the nature protected stock of Ukraine, located in the south of Zaporizhia Region. The blue-and-green algae of this object are studied insufficiently and irregularly. Therefore just qualitative and quantitative indices of this group of algae and morphological peculiarities of different biotopes of the Pryazovia National Natural Park. In would be rather reasonable to study the blue-and-green algae of wather biotopes and to enlarge the knowledge of the algae ecology and algoindicational possibilities of these organisms.

The object of the investigation is the water objects of the Pryazovia National Natural Park. Algological samples in various water biotopes of the PNNP have been chosen, measurements of the salinity temperature of water samples have been made, a specific composition of blue-and-green algae of various water biotopes has been studied, species with the largest frequency of occurrance and dominating algae species have been distinguished. Researching the algae was carried out by means of the illuminating binocular microscope «MICROmed XS-5520» with using the object glasses with the magnifying powers 40x , 100x. The algae identification was made due to determinants. The systematic structure of the discovered algae species was presented according to the system of Komarek and Anagnostidis. For studying the Cyanoprokariota, 16 water samples of 7 water areas of the PNNP have been selected. The selection of water samples was implemented in the temporary and permanent water bodies of the Pryazovia Park. The treatment of the collected material with the further identification and research of the algae was carried out in the laboratory of the department of botany, garden and park economy of Melitopol Bohdan Khmelnytskyi State Pedagogical University.

The research results of the blue-and-green algae of the PNNP water biotopes will give an opportunity to analyse nature environment condition as well as to forecast ecological changes of these surroundings. The carried out investigation have enriched the data specific composition of the blue-and-green algae of the Pryazovia National Natural Park. The research results can be used in describing regional species of the flora and be a part of materials in writing Chronicles of the Pryazovia National Natural Park physical background.
Key words: Cyanoprokariota, water bodies, algae indices, dominating species, the Pryazovia National Natural Park, salinity, existence environment
 

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DISCUSSION / ДИСКУСІЇ


Mytsyk L. P. Terminological niche of scientific concept and its dynamics (on the example of ecological and botanical names)

Мицик Л. П. Термінологічна ніша наукового поняття та її динаміка (на прикладі екологічних та ботанічних понять)

DOI: 10.15421/031620

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On the example of the concepts of «lawn», «phytocoenosis», «ecology» outlines the general laws of the gradual transformation of foreign-language professional word in the scientific term. It is proposed the following definition of the latter concepts. Ecology is a science about relationships of an organism or community of organisms with environmental factors (natural and anthropogenic). The process of formation of a new term, its approval as a full and irreplaceable in the professional language as well as the accuracy and appropriateness of the use will be more clear and expressive, if they come from an analysis of the concept of niche terminology. These words («terminological niche») is called a set of practical and scientific factors that provide or may provide a normal appearance and communicative functioning of the term. Under «normal functioning» of the term we mean the state of its constant use in any style and genre of contemporary normative language understood by the reader according to the signified concept. The proposed understanding of the terminological niche allows in readable position to see the rule that each term pass through the following stages of its development.

1. Free terminological niche stage. At this time, there is no any name of the material or intellectual object (object, phenomenon, point of view, and so on) after the formation of it in reality or in the mind of the author. Between the cause (the appearance of the object) and the effect (the formation of its name), there is a time gap that exists within minutes, but can last for years.

2. Stage of filling the free terminological niche (formation of the term). This time is characterized, among other things, by the existence of professional words mostly as synonymous new object names with their «desire» to leave (as a result of competitive relations of different professional words) to the level of a full indispensable term within the normative language and the specific term system. At the beginning of this stage of professional words (the term precursors) can be used in the narrow circle of specialists or be banned. This is the primary latent (hidden) state of the term.

3. The stage completely filled a niche – during the maturity of the term, its stay at the height of the functional capacity, the situation is universal acceptance of relevant specific of the term designated of its concept.

4. Step regressive niche is time of regression, degradation of the term, which is manifested, among other things, to homonymy, secondary synonymy, reducing in the frequency of use of the term in written and oral texts.

5. Stage of dead niche. The situation is of exhaustion factors that ensure the normal funtioning of the term and the lack of its use in texts. The ability to save the historical meaning of the term indicates the presence of a secondary latent niche. The adjustments in the above-proposed scheme can make cases of return the names of the past and rename concepts. It is shown that the terms are characterized by emotional and expressive component at all stages of their existence. The intensity of expression varies from a minimum periodic manifestations to the maximum expressiveness, which can significantly distort the content of the concept, as is often the case with the term «ecology».

Key words: term, definition, lawn, phytosociology, ecology, plant names
 

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OUR LOSSES / НАШІ ВТРАТИ

 

Travleyev Anatoliy Pavlovych / Травлєєв Анатолій Павлович